About

Why so angry? Mmmm, well lets see, should I list them in alphabetical order? Or perhaps in order of timeline from oldest to most recent. Hell, I could even list them in order of most atrocious act(s). Okay let’s just start and I will list a few, mind you just a few, momumental events that have contributed to my anger!

  • Year 69 – Jonathan The Weaver (Libya) Convinced the poorer Jews of Cyrene to revolt by promising them as a “prophet” that he would walk them through the desert. The Roman Governor, L. Valerius Catullus, had them executed. At the same time the Governor also murdered a few thousand wealthy Jews and appropriated their property.
  • Year 73 – Masada (Eretz Israel)Roman General Flavius Silva succeeded in breeching the Judean desert stronghold held by Elazar ben Yair. Of the 960 people who took refuge on Masada, only two women and five children survived. The rest chose suicide rather than slavery.

  • Year 306 – Council of ElviraOne of the earliest Christian councils, it decreed that intermarriage and social intercourse with Jews were forbidden.
  • Year 354 – 430 – St. AugustineBishop of Hippo (North Africa), called Jewry a corruption and proclaimed eternal Jewish guilt for the death of Jesus.
  • Year 425 – St. Augustine and St. JeromBranded Judaism a corruption and called for the enslavement and severe persecution of Jews until they agreed to convert.
  • Year 768 – 772 – Pope Stephan III (Carolingian Empire) – Complained to the Bishops of Narbonne and Septimania about the Frankish Kings allowing Jews to own land.
  • Year 898 – 929 – Charles the Simple (France) – Confiscated Jewish owned vineyards, salt mines, and houses in Narbonne and donated them to the Church. This signaled the end of the period when the Carolingian kings dealt favorably with the Jews. It also marked the slow dissolution of the Carolingian dynasty, making way for the Capetian dynasty (987).

  • Year 1013 – Civil War in Spain – Broke out between Arabs and Berbers. This resulted in the first Jewish massacre in Cordova in April 1014, and the subsequent decline of the population and importance of the community. An aristocratic family ruled Cordova, who did not consider Jews indispensable. Consequently, the Jews in Cordova began to suffer harassment. Samuel Hanagid was forced to flee to Malaga.
  • Year 1035 – Castrojeriz (Castile, Spain) – King Sancho the Great was killed during a revolt. Four officials and sixty Jews were put to death during that revolt, because the locals considered Jews to be “property” of the crown.
  • Year 1078 – Pope Gregory VII (Hildebrand) – Prohibited Jews from holding offices in Christendom.
  • Year 1096 – Rouen (Normandy, France) – Massacre of Jews under the rule of one of William the Conqueror’s sons. As a consequence, more Jews decided to move to England.
  • Year 1096 – April 10, Trier (Germany) – After being attacked by a mob and threatened with death, Bishop Egelbert offered to save all Jews who were willing to be baptized. Most Jews chose to drown themselves instead.
  • Year 1141 – Alfonso VII (Castile, Spain) – In order to encourage a Christian merchant class, he allowed Christians to retain hereditary ownership of their shops. Jews and Moslems were only allowed to be tenants.
  • Year 1190 – Palm Sunday, Bury St. Edmunds (England) – Fifty-seven Jews were killed in a massacre. Shortly after, the local abbot, Samson, whose abbey was coincidentally in debt to Jewish money lenders, obtained permission to expel all the Jewish residents of the town.

  • Year 1222 – April 17, Deacon Robert of Reading (England) – Was burned for converting to Judaism. The deacon had converted for the love of a Jewess. He was dismissed from his position in the church and delivered to lay authorities who promptly burned him. In general, heretics were not burned in England until the late 14th century.
  • Year 1227 – 1274 – Saint Thomas Aquinas – Called for all the Jews to be enslaved.
  • Year 1253 – January 31, Henry III (England) – Ordered Jewish worship in Synagogues be held quietly so that Christians should not have to hear it when passing by. In addition, he forbade Jews from employing Christian nurses or maids, and prevented other Jews from converting to Christianity.
  • Year 1280 – London (England) – Jews were forced to hear Dominican conversion sermons. Jewish blasphemy of the Church was deemed a capital offense.
  • Year 1289 – Gascony (France) – Jews were expelled from France and their property was confiscated. (Edward I of France had incurred large debts and he needed money quickly.)
  • Year 1321 – Castile (Spain) – Henry II forced the Jews to wear the yellow badge.
  • Year 1322 – June 24 – Charles IV of France – Expelled all the Jews from France without the promised one year’s warning.
  • Year 1370 – May 22 – Alleged Host Desecrations (Brussels, Belgium) – After killing a local wealthy Jew, the perpetrators tried to cover their tracks by accusing the Jews of Host desecration and escaping in the resulting confusion. A few hundred Jews were killed and the rest were banished from the country. A holiday was declared by the local churches.
  • Year 1385 – John of Castile (Spain) – Enforced previous anti-Jewish legislation.

  • Year 1420 – Lyons (France) – All Jews were expelled from Lyons, including the refugees from Paris who were expelled 20 years earlier. The only Jews left in France remained in Provence (until 1500) and in the possessions of the Holy See.
  • Year 1452 – John Capistrano (Germany) – Convinced the Bavarian Dukes to expel the Jews from their Duchies.
  • Year 1453 – June 2 – Breslau (Germany) – John of Capistrano led a mock trial of alleged desecrations of the host. The Rabbi hung himself and urged other Jews to commit suicide. Forty-one Jews were burned, their property confiscated, and all children under seven were forcibly baptized.
  • Year 1455 – Cracow – (Poland) – Due to anti-Jewish agitation and the refusal of the authorities to offer protection, a massacre ensued.
  • Year 1490 – Geneva – (Switzerland) – Jews were expelled and not allowed to return for 300 years. Jews had lived there since their expulsion from France by Philip Augustus in 1182.
  • Year 1492 – March 31 – Edict of Expulsion (Spain) – Since professing Jews were not under the jurisdiction of the Inquisition, the Church leveled a ritual murder accusation against them in Granada and was thus able to call for the expulsion of both Jews and Marranos from Spain. The Marranos themselves were accused of complicity in the case, and both were ordered to leave within four months. Torquemada, the director of the Inquisition (and incidentally of Jewish descent), defended this against Don Isaac Abarbanel. It is estimated that approximately 200,000 Jews were living in Spain. Approximately half of them found temporary sanctuary in Portugal. Another 50,000 fled to friendlier shores and the rest remained as “Christians”.
  • Year 1497 – January 6 – Graz (Austria, Holy Roman Empire) – Emperor Maximilian I expelled the Jews. Jews had been settled there since 1160, thirty years after the town was established.
  • Year 1505 – December 12 – Ceske Budejovice (Bohemia) – Ten Jews were tortured and killed after being accused by a local shepherd of killing a local girl. Years later, on his deathbed, the shepherd confessed he made up the whole story.

  • Year 1526 – November 9, Hungary and Croatia – Following the short occupation by the Ottoman Empire of Buda, the Jews were expelled after being falsely accused by the Hapsburgs of aiding the Turks against Hungary. Many Jews had left Hungary with the departing Turks in hopes of a better life. Jews were not allowed to return for almost 200 years.
  • Year 1563 – December 11, (25 Kislev 5327) Ivan The Terrible (Belarus) – Captured Polotsk, one of the oldest Jewish communities in Lithuania, and ordered all Jews to be baptized. The 300 Jews who refused were drowned in the Dvina River.
  • Year 1566 – April 19, Pope Pius V (The Papal States, Italy) – Three months into his reign, he rejected the leniencies of his predecessor and re-invoked all the restrictions of Paul IV. These included Jews being forced to wear a special cap as well as the prohibitions against owning real estate and practicing medicine on Christians. Communities were not allowed to have more than one synagogue and Jews were confined to a cramped ghetto.
  • Year 1593 – Pope Clement VIII (Italy) Expelled the Jews from all Papal states except Rome and Ancona.
  • Year 1595 – December 17, Lima (Peru) – Ten people were accused of practicing Judaism. Four were handed over for punishment. One of them, Francisco Rodriguez, was burned alive.

  • Year 1625 – Vienna (Austria) – Jews were forced to move into a ghetto (Leopoldstadt).
  • Year 1625 – October 23, Rome (Italy) – Roman Jews were forbidden by Pope Urban VIII (1623-44) to erect gravestones.
  • Year 1664 – May, Lvov – Jews, learning about an impending attack by Jesuit seminary students and the Cathedral school, prepared a defense of the ghetto. The local official sent in the militia to ostensibly restore order. Instead, they joined the rioters, killing about 100 Jews.
  • Year 1670 – August 8, Vienna (Austria) – Leopold I, after evicting the Jews, sold the Jewish quarter for 100,000 florins, which was then renamed Leopoldstadt in his honor. The synagogue and the bet midrash (talmudic study hall) were turned into St. Margaret’s Church.

  • Year 1742 – December 1, Czarina Elizabeth Petrovna (Russia) (daughter of Catherine I and Peter the Great of Russia) – Expelled 35,000 Jews from parts of Russia. When advised of the financial loss she allegedly responded, “I do not want any benefit from the enemies of Christ.”
  • Year 1744 – November 8, Prague (Bohemia) – Frederick the Great took Prague in the Wars of Succession and the populace ransacked the ghetto. He soon left and the Croats returned. They accused the Jews of treason and again their quarters were sacked, this time with the help of Austrian and Hungarian soldiers.
  • Year 1759 – January, Louisiana Colony (North American Colonies) – Despite what was known as the Louisiana Black Code, there were at least 5 Jewish families living there. The law denied residence to Jews or the practice of any religion except Catholicism in the territory.
  • Year 1762 – March 11, Rhode Island (North American Colonies) – Although considered more liberal than other states, and despite the fact that a few Jews had previously been granted citizenship, the court refused to grant it to Aaron Lopez and Isaac Eliezer, stating that “no person who is not of the Christian religion can be admitted free to this colony”. Lopez was granted citizenship by Massachusetts and the sentence “upon the true faith of a Christian” was excluded from the oath. Lopez was probably the first Jew to be granted citizenship in Massachusetts.
  • Year 1783 – Morocco – The Sultan expelled the Jews after they failed to pay an exorbitant ransom. This was the third time they were expelled within a number of years.

  • Year 1844 – 1910 – Karl Lueger (Austria) – Founder of an anti-Semitic Austrian Catholic party, the Christian Social Party (in 1893). He became mayor of Vienna in 1897 (see 1897) and was a strong supporter of Christian Socialism. His style of leadership served as a model for Hitler.
  • Year 1848 – March 20, Berlin (Germany) – Riots and street fighting killed 20 Jews. Anti-Jewish riots spread to Bavaria, Baden, Hamburg, and many other cities.
  • Year 1855 – 1927 – Houston Stewart Chamberlain (England) – Son-in-law of Richard Wagner, the composer and anti-Semite. He was a proponent of the superiority of the Teutonic race. Chamberlain was the author of “Foundation of the Nineteenth Century” which Julius Streicher, the Nazi founder of Der Stuermer, called “the greatest book since the gospel”.
  • Year 1858 – June 23, Mortara Case (Bologna, Italy) – Edgardo Mortara, a seven year old Jewish boy, was kidnapped by the Roman Catholic Church on the pretext that a servant girl claimed that she had baptized him. The Pope, Pious IX, refused to surrender him despite much protest. The combination of the Damascus Affair and this affair led to the unification of many Jews, and later to the establishment of the Alliance Israelite Universelle.
  • Year 1859 – April 14, Galatz (Romania) – Jews were accused of taking blood from a Christian child (for the baking of matzos), though not of killing him. Fifteen “culprits” were arrested. The next day a mob broke into the synagogue. Tney killed some of the worshippers, destroyed some fifty scrolls, and demolished the synagogue. The fifteen were soon released with no convictions, yet the government refused to allow the synagogue to be rebuilt for nearly twenty years.
  • Year 1864 – 1888 – Morocco – During this period, 307 Jews were murdered by Moslems without one Moslem being put on trial for this crime.
  • Year 1870 – 1953 – Hilaire Belloc (England) – Most prolific spokesman for English Catholicism. He generated the idea that Jews were only interested in money.
  • Year 1872 – New York (USA) – Discrimination against Jews began in what is now City College of New York.
  • Year 1877 – Joseph Seligman (USA) – Was refused admission to the Grand Union Hotel in Saratoga Springs because he was Jewish. Seligman was a renowned philanthropist and helped the Union cause during the Civil War for which in recognition, President Grant had offered him the post of Secretary of the Treasury. Judge Henry Hilton ruled that it was bad for business to allow Jews to enter the resort. Though the Grand Union Hotel was not the first incident in the USA, it received a great amount of publicity.
  • Year 1879 – Birth of Modern Anti-Semitism (Germany) – Adolph Stoecker, a German theologian and anti-Semitic leader, founded the “Christian Social Workers Party” (later known as the CSP). Orginaly designed to fight against Social Democracy, it soon became synonymous with anti- Jewish demagogy. His Christian Socialist Workingmen’s Union was a front for boycotting and/or bypassing Jewish businesses in favor of those belonging to the Teutonic race. Thus, a Jew became qualified to be a Jew not by his religion (which left him the option of conversion) but by his race, which not even the baptismal waters could cure. Stoecker can also be “accredited” with making anti-Semitism a national issue.
  • Year 1881 – 1897 – Algeria – There were anti-Jewish riots throughout most of the country after Jews were granted citizenship
  • Year 1881 – April 25, Chancellor Bismark (Germany) – Accepted an anti-Semitic petition demanding, among other things, a ban on Jewish immigration. The petition bore no less than two hundred and fifty-five thousand signatures.
  • Year 1881 – December 25, Warsaw (Poland) – Anti-Jewish riots began in Poland. In Warsaw twelve Jews were killed, many others were wounded, and some women were raped. Two million rubles worth of property was destroyed. All of this led to an increase of emigration to the west.
  • Year 1882 – January, Count Nikolai Ignatyev (Russia) – The anti-Semitic minister of the Interior. He was requested by Alexander III to set up local commissions of inquiry into the blame for the recent pogroms. Ignatyev determined that they were caused by “Jewish exploitation.” This led to the publishing of the May laws. In his desire to rid himself of the Jewish population, Ignatyev allowed Jews to emigrate. This resulted in massive immigration to the west. Alexander himself commented upon hearing about the pogroms “And I, to admit the truth , am glad when the Jews are being beaten”.
  • Year 1884 – Bulgaria – Anti-Jewish riots began and continued until 1904. Many Jews immigrated to Anatolia, Turkey.
  • Year 1891 – June 29, Xanten (Germany) – Ritual murder libel. The rise of anti-Semitism culminating in this libel resulted in an exodus from Germany to the United States and other countries.
  • Year 1892 – David Schwartz (Hungary) – Invented the dirigible airship. Since he died before he made his flight, his widow sold the patents to Count Zeppelin, who received the credit.

  • Year 1903 – April 19, Kishninev (Bessarabia) – Riots broke out after a Christian child, Michael Ribalenko, was found murdered (Feb. 16). Although it was clear that the boy had been killed by a relative, the government chose to call it a ritual murder plot by the Jews. The mobs were incited by Pavolachi Krusheven, the editor of the anti-Semitic newspaper Bessarabetz, and the vice governor, Ustrugov. Vyacheslav Von Plehve, the Minister of Interior, supposedly gave orders not to stop the rioters. During three days of rioting, forty-seven Jews were killed, ninety-two severely wounded, five hundred slightly wounded and over seven hundred houses were destroyed. Despite a world-wide outcry, only two men were sentenced to seven and five years and twenty-two were sentenced for one or two years. This pogrom was instrumental in convincing tens of thousands of Russian Jews to leave Russia for the West and for Eretz Israel. The child’s real murderer was later found.
  • Year 1904 – Jannuary 25, Herzl Meets Pope Pius X – And tried to convince him to support the vision of Zionism without any success. The pope totally rejected the idea that Jerusalem will be in Jewish hands .
  • Year 1905 – April 24 – 25, (Easter) Bialystok and Zhitomir (Russia) -Were attacked by the Black Hundreds (League of the Russian People), an unofficial pro-Czarist terrorist force. This time the Jews tried to defend themselves. In Zhitomir, police prevented Jewish self-defense organizations from protecting their property. After two days, 15 Jews and one non-Jewish student who had volunteered to defend the Jews, were killed. The Governor did nothing to stop the mobs until a number of Jews broke into his office and threatened him. The hostilities ceased almost immediately.
  • Year 1905 – July 30, Bialystok (Russia) – During the anti-Jewish riots physicians were prevented from treating the Jewish victims.
  • Year 1905 – October 18 – 25, Blackest Week in Russian Jewish History – The Black Hundreds and other bands alleged that the Jews were responsible for their defeats in the Russian Japanese war and other Russian ills. In Odessa, the commander of the cadet school General Deryugin told his soldiers “Your on your way to massacre the Jews, You have my blessing for your work.” In spite of many attempts at self defense, hundreds were killed, and thousands were wounded in more then fifty areas throughout Russia. In over 50 major pogroms over 40,000 homes and shops were destroyed, giving new impetus to immigration to both the West and Eretz Israel, with over 200,000 Jews leaving in one year.
  • Year 1906 – July 4, Bialystok (Russia) – Anti-Jewish riots. It was later revealed that the St. Petersburg police department paid for the leaflets inciting the people to riot.
  • Year 1909 – 1910 Poland – A boycott of Jewish goods was organized under the guise of nationalism.
  • Year 1909 – Smolensky District (Russia) – A Jewish hunt was organized (one of many) to find Jews living outside the Pale. Ten were found in the city and 74 more in the neighboring woods. All were forced back into the Pale.
  • Year 1910 – Werner Sombart (Germany) – A Christian economist and historian, he published a treatise on the evils of capitalism, which he ascribed to the Jews.
  • Year 1910 – Kiev (Ukraine) – Twelve hundred Jewish families were expelled.
  • Year 1912 – Russia – The fourth Duma was convened. Although a suggestion not to allow Jews to serve in the army was not accepted, it was decided that no Jew, converted Jew, or children of converted Jews were allowed to become officers in the Army.
  • Year 1914 – President Wilson (USA) – Vetoed the anti-immigration bill. This bill, part of the growing anti-immigration feelings in the country, had been brought up as far back as 1882. In 1897 President Cleveland vetoed it, as did Taft in 1913. Each time it was sustained by a narrower margin until 1917 when the bill finally passed despite Wilson’s veto. There were decided anti-Jewish insinuations in much of the lobbying.
  • Year 1915 – Ku Klux Klan (Atlanta, Georgia, USA) – Was organized by William J. Simmons with a white Protestant American membership. During its heyday it delved into politics, organized boycotts and committed acts of violence against Jews, Blacks, Catholics, and anyone foreign born.
  • Year 1915 – July 5, Russia – Hebrew and Yiddish publications were banned.
  • Year 1917 – February, Russian Revolution – Broke out in Petrograd. After three years of ruinous war the old regime collapsed. By March, a provisional government under Alexander Kerensky was set up. During the ensuing revolution the Jews were caught in the middle. Much of the conflict centered around the south and west, where over 3 million Jews lived. It is estimated that over 2000 pogroms took place, especially in the Ukraine, leading to the death of 100,000-200,000 Jews within the next 3 years.
  • Year 1919 – March, Poland – An anti-Jewish boycott became a serious threat. Cooperatives were created to undersell Jews and numerous laws were passed to force Jews out of business and the legal and medical professions.
  • Year 1920 – 1922 – Germany – The International Jew, an anti-Semitic book, was translated into German and ran through sixteen editions. It was subsidized by Henry Ford.
  • Year 1920 – 1927 – Henry Ford (USA) – Published an assortment of anti-Semitic literature including: The International Jew, Jewish Activities in the United States and Jewish Influence in American Life. As the result of a libel action in 1927 he was forced to make a public retraction.
  • Year 1920 – January, Germany – Ripe for anti-Semitism after its defeat in World War I, the first translation of the Protocols was published. It was called The Secret of the Elders of Zion and was published by the Verband gegen die Ueberhebung des Judentums (League against Jewish Arrogance). Led by Ludwig Miller (von Hausen) AKA Gottfried zur Beek. They also published the periodical Auf Vorposten which blamed Germany’s defeat on the Jews. The German Protocols was reprinted five times in 1920 alone.
  • Year 1920 – February 24, NSDAP (National Socialist) Party (Germany) – The Nazi party endorsed its own platform which consisted of twenty-five points. Seven of these points concerned the Jews. As part of their program they insisted that Jews could never be citizens or a part of the German Volk (people). That same year the German National Peoples Party (DNVP) also came out “against the predominance of Jewry in government and public life”.
  • Year 1920 – March 21, President Harding (USA – Pushed Congress to limit immigration. This had a direct effect on Jewish immigration prior to and during World War II.
  • Year 1920 – May 20, Henry Ford (USA) – Ford’s newspaper, Dearborn Independent, with a circulation of seven hundred thousand, “discussed” the Jewish problem.
  • Year 1921 – Austria – Expelled seventy-three thousand out of the hundred thousand Galician Jewish refugees. The remainder were either too sick or too old to leave.
  • Year 1922 – November 11, Munich Putsch (Germany) – General Ludendorff and an Austrian corporal named Adolph Hitler (1889-1945) were arrested after a short parade proclaiming the overthrow of the government. Hitler was sent to Landsburg prison where he wrote Mein Kampf (My Battle), a vicious harangue against democracy, communism, the Versaille diktat and, of course, the Jews as the root of all evil. The book became the “Bible” of the Nazis, and was published in almost every major country. Hitler himself soon rose (1925) to become leader of the Nazi Party and chancellor of the German Reich in 1933. Hitler’s compulsive hatred of everything Jewish, coupled with his pathological personality, led him to become the first person in history to systematically conceive and implement the extermination of European Jewry.
  • Year 1923 – Poland – Began to methodically dismiss Jewish factory workers.
  • Year 1925 – Austria – Deans of all Austrian universities decided to deny Jews positions in higher education.
  • Year 1932 – Moscow (Russia) – An exclusively anti-Jewish section was opened in the Central anti-Religious Museum, showing the “stupidities of Judaism”.
  • Year 1933 – 1939 – Germany – More than 1400 anti-Jewish laws were passed.
  • Year 1933 – Poland – Members of anti-Semitic political organizations (Endeks and Naras) attacked Jews in the streets.
  • Year 1933 – January 1, Hindenburg Resigned (Germany) – Hitler was appointed chancellor of the Reich on Jan 30th.
  • Year 1933 – March, Breslau (Germany) – Jewish lawyers and judges were attacked by the Nazis. This was the first official violence against Jews.
  • Year 1933 – March 10, Dachau Concentration Camp (Germany) – Was established. It was the first of the SS run imprisonment camps. A month earlier Germany passed a law which would allow people to be imprisoned for an unlimited period of time if they were deemed hostile to the regime. Soon after other camps were set up to hold such prisoners. Often factories were set up near the camps and paid for the “use” of laborers. Although not a “death or extermination camp” per se, Dachau and other camps like it practiced daily murder, starvation, and sadistic medical experiments on their inmates. Forty thousand Jews probably died in Dachau. Other camps included Sachsenhausen, Buchenwald, Ravensbrueck (for women). Several of the camps had crematoria to get rid of the large number of corpses. According to an agreement with Himmler, the Gestapo were the ones to make the arrests while the SS ran the camps. Only in 1941 were the special death camps or extermination camps created.
  • Year 1933 – April 26, The Gestapo (Geheime Staatspolizei) (Germany) – Secret State Police was established. After a short time Hermann Goering was appointed as commander and changed its character to one of a political police force. Within a year Goering agreed to transfer the Gestapo to Heinrich Himmler where it came under the jurisdiction of the SS. The Gestapo was in charge of investigating, along with the S.D. all enemies of the Reich of which the Jews figured prominently. In addition the Gestapo eventually played a major role in planning and the carrying out of the “Final Solution”. Although the S.S. for the most part ran the concentration camps, the Gestapo was responsible for rounding up the Jews as well as overseeing the Einsatzgruppen or Special duty groups. In 1936, Reinhard Heydrich became head of the Gestapo and Heinrich Müller, its chief of operations. Müller took over after Heydrich’s assassination in 1942. He disappeared near the end of the war and was never caught.
  • Year 1933 – July 13, Germany – Nazism was declared the sole German party.
  • Year 1934 – Afghanistan – Two thousand Jews were expelled from towns and cities and forced to live in the wilderness.
  • Year 1934 – 1945 United States – Only agreed to accept around 1000 refugee children. Britain, Belgium, Sweden, France, and Holland all took in more.
  • Year 1934 – September 12, Congressman Emanuel Celler (USA) – Called on Congress for the boycott of the 1936 Olympics in Germany. Two weeks later, Avery Brundage, President of the American Olympic Committee, announced that the United States would participate in the games.
  • Year 1935 – Germany – In an interview with London journalists, Dr. Joseph Goebbels asserted that the goal of Nazism was that “Jewry must perish”.
  • Year 1935 – September 15, Nuremberg Laws (Germany) – “The law for the protection of German Blood and Honor” was instituted. As part of these laws, it became a capital offense to marry or have intimate relations with a Jew. The law was more specific than the 1933 laws regarding mixed or Mischlinge Jews, which defined as a Jew as anyone with one Jewish grandparent. The racial law was based on that Nazi belief that the basic freedoms of individuals were superseded by “racial or national characteristics” which were supposed to make some people inferior to others. As part of the “Reich Law”, Jews were no longer citizens (with rights) but rather subjects of the Reich. These were among the 2,000 laws enacted against Jews which included the revoking of German citizenship, the prohibition against serving in the public sector, owning or editing newspapers, or immigrating to Germany.
  • Year 1937 – March 14, Pope Pius XI – Criticized the Nazis for interfering with Catholic education in the Third Reich. Although he denounced Nazi racism and totalitarianism, he also mentioned that the Jews were guilty of deicide. This was one of the few times the Vatican came out publicly against the Nazi regime. The next pope, Pius XII, did even less.
  • Year 1938 – January 21, Romania – Jewish citizenship was revoked. Miron Cristea – patriarch of the Romanian Orthodox Church and successor to Goga – declared: “The Jews are sucking the marrow from the bones of the nation.”
  • Year 1938 – April 26, New Restrictions (Germany) – A law was passed that all Jewish assets with a value of over five thousand reichsmark ($2,000) per person had to be declared. This eventually led to the seizure of all Jewish property.
  • Year 1938 – June 1, Mass Arrests (Germany) – Reinhard Heydrich, head of the Gestapo, also known as the Secret Police, ordered the arrest of thousands of German Jews. Most were sent to Buchenwald which soon had to be enlarged. Others were sent to Dachau and Sachsenhausen. In Dachau the prisoners were told to make lots of yellow stars in preparation for a new influx of prisoners.
  • Year 1938 – July 25, Father Charles Coughlin (USA) – A Roman Catholic priest in Detroit, Coughlin began his weekly anti-Semitic broadcasts over national radio. He also formed the American Christian Front in New York City which carried out anti-Semitic street meetings and boycotted Jewish businesses.
  • Year 1938 – July 30, Henry Ford – Accepted the Third Reich’s medal of the Grand Cross of the German Eagle.
  • Year 1938 – November 17, Anti Jewish Legislation (Italy) – Was passed confiscating Jewish property and banning Jews from all positions in the civil service. All Jews who became citizens after January 1, 1919 were deprived of their citizenship and were commanded to leave Italy no later than March 1939.
  • Year 1939 – March 3, Cardinal Pcelli – A long time semi-supporter of the German government, became Pope Pius XII. In October 1941 Harold Tittman, a U.S. delegate to the Vatican, asked the pope to condemn the atrocities against Jews; Pius replied that the Vatican wished to remain “neutral.” In September 1942 the Popes Secretary of State,Luigi Maglione in a reply to a query stated “that the rumors about genocide could not be verified” that same year he commented that that the Vatican was “unable to denounce publicly particular atrocities”. This policy of refusal to publicly condemn Nazi atrocities continued throughout the war. After the war Pius called for forgiveness for all, including war criminals.
  • Year 1939 – July, “T4″ Advanced Euthanasi Program – Was set up under Hitler’s orders by Hans Heinrich Lammers and Dr. Phillip Bouhler. It was named for the address of Dr. Bouhler’s office in the Reich Chancellery, at 4 Tiergartenstrasse. He was assisted by Hitler’s personal physician Dr. Karl Brandt and Dr. Victor Brack who became Bouhler’s deputy Although the Nazis had begun Euthanasia programs among the general German population earlier, the scope of T4 extended its practice of killing the “racially valueless” to include the incurably sick and insane. Experiments were made with various gases and delivery installations (gas chambers). It was Bouhler’s idea to disguise the gas chambers as showers as not to cause panic. The expertise gained , much of the personnel and equipment were later transferred to other camps for the “Final Solution”.
  • Year 1939 – September 3, Cardinal Theodore Innitzer (Rome, Italy) – Suggested to Pius XII that all religious pupils be greeted with “Heil Hitler, praised be Jesus Christ.”
  • Year 1939 – September 8, German Troops Occupied Lodz (Poland) – With over 230,000 Jews living there. By the time the Russians arrived on January 19, 1945 they found less then 10,000 Jews left.
  • Year 1940 – January 24, The New York Times – In an editorial justified its aversion to reporting stories about atrocities in Poland because: “All we have heard until now have been unofficial accounts of such horrors that we chose to disbelieve them as exaggerated.”
  • Year 1940 – April 27, Auschwitz (Poland) – Under Himmler’s orders, work began on Auschwitz. The first and smallest camp was used for German criminals. Later it was used for Polish prisoners as well. It only began taking in massive numbers of Jews in March 1942. Auschwitz was to become the main killing center for European Jewry. In May, its first commandant, Rudolf Hoess, was appointed. He eventually constructed the camp at Birkenau and developed an assembly line system for murder. At its peak, Auschwitz was able to “process” 10,000 people in 24 hours. Hoess was later captured by the British and hung on April 16, 1947 on the one-person gallows outside the entrance to the gas chamber.
  • Year 1940 – July 3, Madascar Plan (Berlin, Germany) – Adolph Eichmann prepared a detailed plan for the transfer of four million Jews to Madagascar to be paid for by Jewish confiscated property. The idea was to rid Europe of its Jews and at the same time use them as “hostages” to insure the “correct behavior” of world Jewry. The plan itself dates back to the German anti-Semitic nationalist Paul de Lagarde in 1885. The Germans needed French acquiescence which was predicated on a peace treaty which in turn depended on the end of hostilities with England. On February 1, 1942 the plan was discarded and replaced with the Endloesung, or the “Final Solution”.
  • Year 1940 – July 22, Vichy Government (France) – In its first anti-Jewish decree, it revoked the citizenship of naturalized Jews.
  • Year 1940 – November 15, Ghettos Sealed (Poland) – The Warsaw ghetto, with more then 400,000 Jews, and the Krakow ghetto, with 70,000 Jews, were sealed off.
  • Year 1941 – January 21, The Iron Guard (Romania) – Revolted against Antonescu and the army. During the short lived revolt, the Iron Guard attacked Jews in Bucharest, killing 120 people. Some of them were hung on meat hooks with a sign placed on them reading “Kosher meat.”
  • Year 1941 – March, Adolph Eichmann (Germany) – Was appointed head of the Jewish Affairs section of the Gestapo, also known as Section IVB4. Within a few months, he was in charge of implementation of the “Final Solution” in all of its aspects. In 1944, Eichmann visited Auschwitz and proposed a method for speeding up the killings by twenty percent. Later that same year, Eichmann went personally to Hungary to oversee the deportation efforts.
  • Year 1941 – May 14, PARIS (France) – Thousands of foreign-born Jews were arrested by French police.
  • Year 1941 – October 13 – 14, Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine) – In one of the largest massacres of its kind, 37,000 Jews were shot by machine guns and placed in tank ditches.
  • Year 1941 – November 9, Chaim Weizmann – Again demanded that the British establish a Jewish Legion. The British didn’t even reply.
  • Year 1941 – December 7 – 9, Riga (Russia) – Within two days 80% of the Jews living in the ghetto (25,000 people) were shot including the famous historian Simon Dubnow. On December 8, at age 81, Dubnow was shot by a former student of his, now a Gestapo officer. His dying message to fellow Jews was: “Yidn, shreibt un farshreibt!” (“Jews, write and record!”).
  • Year 1942 – January, Hungarian Troops (Yugoslavia) – Massacred several thousands Jews in the Bacska region of Yugoslavia under their control. Although this was not official policy, the perpetrators were able to flee to Germany.
  • Year 1942 – March, – 1945 January 17, Auschwitz (Poland) – The largest concentration and death camp began to take in Jews. Auschwitz was divided into three camps. Auschwitz I held both Jews and non-Jews. Auschwitz II, better know as Birkenau, was the main extermination camp. Auschwitz III was used for Jewish slave labor. Over 1,000,000 Jews were exterminated in Auschwitz.
  • Year 1942 – March 2, – 1943 April, Belzec (Poland) – The second death camp (and former labor camp) became operational. Over 600,000 Jews, mostly Polish, were murdered in the camp before it was closed by the Germans. Odilo Globocnik was its first commandant. Globocnik was appointed by Himmler to be in charge of the European sector of the “Final Solution” and was involved in organizing Belzec, Sobibor, Majdanek, and Treblinka. He took poison in May 1945. Christian Wirth, another commandant, was killed by Tito’s partisans. When the camp was abandoned, local villages were attracted to the site and dug for valuables. In order to obliterate the site, the Germans plowed it over and turned it into a farm run by one of the Ukrainian guards.
  • Year 1942 – March 26, Auschwitz, Poland – The first Jewish transport arrived under the command of Rudolf Hoess, containing 1000 Jews from Slovakia and 1000 women from Ravensbruk. According to a conservative estimate, from March 1942 until the liberation on January 27, 1945 over 750,000 Jews were gassed within its gates. Hoess himself estimated it at 1,135,000.
  • Year 1942 – March 28, First Deportations to Auschwitz (France) – From France. Many of the 1100 prominent foreign Jews had been arrested the previous December. Some had been held in the Drancy camp, others in the camp at Compiegne.
  • Year 1942 – June 7, Yellow Badge (France) – Jews were ordered to wear a yellow badge in the occupied section of France. Many Jews marched down the streets of Paris wearing their war medals together with the star and were applauded by the crowds. Xavier Vallat, Commissariat of Jewish Affairs, told the Germans that he would not enforce the regulation and was replaced by Darquier de Pellepoix . A month later, Jews were banned from public places and only allowed one hour a day for shopping.
  • Year 1942 – July 10, Dr. Josef Mengele (Auschwitz, Poland) – Began medical experiments in Auschwitz. His experiments on twins were among the most horrific. Many were as young as 5 years old and they were usually murdered after the experiments. Of the approximately 3,000 twins experimented on, very few survived. Mengele succeeded in evading capture and was rumored to have died in 1979 in South America.
  • Year 1942 – July 16 – 17, Largest Aktion of French Jews (Paris, France) – 12,884 people, among them 4,051 children, were arrested and imprisoned in the Paris Velodrome d’Hiver cycling stadium. The action had been postponed so as not to conflict with Bastille Day. People were kept there for five days without almost any food and water. In general, the French police would only participate in roundups of foreign Jews, while the Gestapo itself would act against French Jews.
  • Year 1942 – July 23, – 1943 October 14, Treblinka II (Poland) – Death camp went into operation with the first transport of Warsaw’s Jews. (Treblinka II was different from Treblinka I which was a labor camp and also housed political prisoners). Over 750,000 Jews were murdered there. The camp was closed and dismantled after a revolt.The camp was organized by Odilo Globocnik. Those that ran it included Joseph (Sepp) Hirtreiter and Kurt Franz, who were sentenced to life imprisonment, and Franz Stangl, who was caught in Brazil and sentenced in 1971 to life imprisonment but died the same year.
  • Year 1942 – August 13, Switzerland – For the first time, Swiss police hand over to the Germans Jewish refugees who had entered Switzerland “illegally.”
  • Year 1942 – August 22, Metroplitan (Archbishop) Andrey Sheptytsky (Ukraine) – Wrote Pope Pius XII describing the atrocities of the Nazis. Although Sheptytsky initially welcomed the Germans, he had done so because of his belief in Ukrainian independence. Once he witnessed the scope of the persecutions, he wrote to Himmler himself. The Pope’s reply urged him to show patience.
  • Year 1942 – September, Congressman Emanuel Celler (D N.Y) (USA) – Introduced a bill into the House of Representatives which would have permitted Jewish refugees in France, who were facing deportation to Eastern Europe, to enter the United States. Congressman Samuel Dickstein (also from New York) of the House Committee on Immigration postponed any discussion until after the elections and then helped kill the bill in the committee.
  • Year 1942 – September 3, Jacob Rosenheim (USA) – President of Agudat Israel received a telegram from Israel Sternbuch, his representative in Switzerland, confirming the mass murder of 100,000 Polish Jews. Rosenheim sent the letter to President Roosevelt, James G. McDonald, the president’s advisor on political refugees, and Stepen Wise. McDonald also forwarded it to Eleanor Roosevelt. There was no reply from either Roosevelt.
  • Year 1942 – October 1, – 1943 August 2, Treblinka (Poland) – Twenty-five railway cars full of human hair were delivered to factories for the use in making industrial felt as well as slippers for U-boat crews.
  • Year 1942 – November, President Ramon Castillo (Argentina) – Agreed under pressure to accept 1,000 French Jewish children. The government (ostensibly neutral) refused to put the plan into operation.
  • Year 1942 – December 8, President Roosevelt (USA) – After submitting to friendly pressure by Stephen Wise, who stated that refusal to meet with them may be “gravely misunderstood,” met with Jewish leaders of the Temporary Committee for half an hour. Roosevelt spoke 80% of the time and mostly about issues unrelated to the plight of the Jews. After hearing the evidence he confirmed its veracity, stating the U.S. was “well acquainted with most of the facts.” Despite his acknowledgement of the planned annihilation of European Jewry his only concession was to agree issue a war crimes warning. The entire holocaust part of the conversation lasted less then two minutes. This was his only meeting with Jewish leaders concerning the Holocaust. His only other meeting to discuss the issue was with 7 Jewish congressmen on April 1 1943.
  • Year 1943 – February 10, U.S. State Department Telegraph 354 – Sent by Under Secretary of State Sumner Welles to all American consulates “suggested” that they not to accept any ” private messages” or reports regarding the German actions against Jews. This effectively closed off almost all reports regarding the Holocaust from even reaching the United States. Although reportedly Welles may have been personally sympathetic to the “Jewish problem”, he totally identified with the State Departments policies and carried them out with alacrity.
  • Year 1943 – July, U.S. State Department (USA) – Issued a new visa application which was four feet long. The waiting period for processing was now nine months. In addition, Jews in Nazi-held territories had no way of making a visa application since there were no American consulates. Any refugee who succeeded in reaching countries which had an American consulate (Spain, Portugal) was considered to be “not in acute danger” and was therefore denied a visa.
  • Year 1943 – August 30, Information Regarding Concentration Camps Suppressed – Britain still refused to allow the mention of concentration camps in any Allied statements, claiming that there was not yet enough evidence.
  • Year 1944 – March, Detailed Report on Auschwitz (Poland – USA) – Prepared by the Polish underground, it was distributed to the Office of Strategic Services, the War Department and the U.N. War Crimes Commission. None of them released the report.
  • Year 1944 – April 21, Escapees from Auschwitz – Rudolf Vrba and Alfred Wetzler, who had been in Auschwitz Auschwitz for two years, reached Slovakia and gave an eye witness detailed account of the camp. They were able to produce a detailed report on the structure, workings, and methods of the camp – including the entire annihilation process. The report reached Rabbi Dov Weissmandl who sent it on the head of the Orthodox community in Budapest, Rabbi Philip Von Freudiger, as a warning for Hungarian Jews, and sent it to the American Delegation in Bern as well. It took Roswell McClelland of the American delegation in Switzerland almost six months to forward the full text of the report to the State Department. Weismandel appealed for the bombing of the camps but was rebuffed.
  • Year 1944 – July 2, The New York Times (USA) – Published an article concerning the murder of 400,000 Hungarian Jews. It was put on page twelve while page one was dedicated to problems with the July 4th holiday crowds.

Okay I’m going to stop here, not because there isn’t a mountainous amount of information that could be added, but rather because my anger level is rising exponentially with each bullet point I add. And since I have no desire to actually spontaneous compust the list will end here.